There are actually a lot of things that subsurface investigators are able to provide people on earth. This is relevant to many industries and companies which operate in mining, in petrochemicals, in fuel extraction and in studying the things beneath the surface to have information for things like construction sites and utility plants. Consulting is often something needed for all these.
There are companies thus which specialize with the systems and equipment that may be used for studying the underground. These can work with experts called Geophysical consultants and they might have doctorates on geophysics and geology. These are experts who know where to drill, what to drill for and when to drill.
Drilling is the most basic item for the research and study which provides data for the consultants. Often, these can be the ones who are running the monitoring and testing equipment. Because the need is often for real time data that need to be processed immediately and provided to working crews on the field.
The consultants may also do studies for companies which need them. These could be studies for certain areas and how or what they might contain beneath the surface. The experts need only study the things found above ground to tell what things may lie underneath, because things like rock outcroppings can be extensions of underground formations.
Also, there have been a lot of data made over to libraries about the evidence on the ground which can be proof of the existence of things beneath. These could be proof for metals, precious and useful for industries. Or these could be for fossil fuels, which are now resources which need more sources that have to be discovered by drilling and testing.
Underground is something that is rarely seen or cannot be accessed without drilling. So, the rigs which might be used are among the most complicated of extensible rigging that can dig deep into the earth. Each strata is sampled and studied and the things found there identified, and if it contains precious resources, the machines have done their jobs.
These are among the biggest in the planet, and while the need for them is on the sites themselves, the data they provide is one which is going to be used everywhere. They can provide the charts and graphs for boardrooms of oil and drilling companies, or give scientists more facts for papers they submit to scientific journals.
The things that are found underneath the earth are slowly and surely being accessed, and the latest are robots which can be controlled with digital device above ground. Robots, too, can dig deeper with the big machines that could drill sideways or vertically.
The most important things that the consultants provide are the relevant analyses of all data sets that pertain to any kind of subsurface investigation. And their work is often the most valuable tool without which engineers in the petroleum industry, say, cannot operate. Thus their data and findings are submitted first before any kind of drilling project gets off the ground.